General Concepts

File formats

WSIM tools use netCDF as a standard file format, using the CF Conventions for metadata. Although the output of all WSIM tools is in netCDF format, tools are also capable of reading data from any format supported by GDAL.

Variable definitions

Many tools use one or more --input arguments to provide references to variables used in computations performed by the tool. A variable definition may be as simple as a file name, and all file names are valid variable definitions. However, additional syntax recognized by WSIM allows a single variable definition to refer to one or more variables in one or more files.

Wildcard expansion

Wildcard expansion can be used with --input arguments. For example, a pattern like --input=temp_19[7-9]*.nc could be used to load temperature values from 1970 to 1999.

Date range expansion

Recognizing that filenames are commonly used to encode timestamps, WSIM tools allow a range of files to be specified by including a block of the following form in a filename: [date_start:date_stop:step (optional)]. For example, the following text will be interpreted to refer to the 120 monthly files between January 1961 and January 1970 (inclusive):

--input "results_1mo_[196101:197001].nc"

If we wanted to refer to the 10 files from January only, we could add a step size of 12 months:

--input "results_1mo_[191601:197001:12].nc"

Dates may be specified at a resolution years (YYYY), months (YYYYMM), or days (YYYYMMMDD). The step resolution is assumed to be the same as the date resolution.

Where applicable, date expansion is preferred to wildcard expansion because an error will be generated if any files in the date sequence are missing.

Regular variables

If a raw netCDF filename is provided to an --input argument, WSIM tools will assume that all “regular” variables in the file should be loaded. A “regular” variable is a file that:

  • is not a coordinate variable

  • is associated with at least one dimension

As an example, consider the following netCDF file (representing output from wsim_fit, as described by ncinfo:

root group (NETCDF4 data model, file format HDF5):
    Conventions: CF-1.6
    date_created: 2017-09-11T11:0224-0400
    distribution: gev
    dimensions(sizes): lon(720), lat(360)
    variables(dimensions): float64 lon(lon), float64 lat(lat), float64 location(lat,lon), float64 scale(lat,lon), float64 shape(lat,lon), int32 crs()
    groups:

In this file, lon and lat are not read by WSIM tools because they are coordinate variables. The crs variable is not associated with any dimensions and is also ignored by WSIM tools.

Reading specific variables using ::

A filename may be optionally followed by :: and a comma-separated list of variable names or band numbers in the file. If :: is not provided for a netCDF file, it will be assumed that all “regular” variables in the file should be loaded. A “regular” variable is a variable that is not a coordinate variable, and that is associated with at least one dimension. If :: is not provided for another raster type, only the first band will read read.

In the netCDF file example shown above:

  • --input=fits.nc would load the three regular variables: location, scale, and shape.

  • --input=fits.nc::location would load only the location variable

  • --input=fits.nc::shape,location would load the shape and location variables. The same variables could be loaded with multiple arguments (--input=fits.nc::shape --input=fits.nc::location) although this is less efficient.

The :: syntax (and other variable operators described below) can be used in conjunction with filename wildcard or date range matching, for example: --input="obs_[198001:198006].nc::T,Pr" could be used to load temperature and precipitation observations from January to June 1980.

Renaming variables using ->

A variable can be renamed using the -> symbol as part of the specification. For example, one could write --input="my_image.tiff::1->red,2->green,3->blue", which would load bands 1,2, and 3 of my_image.tiff and assign them the names red, green, and blue.

Transforming variables using @

Basic transformations can be performed on loaded data by specifying one or more named transformations. For example, the following variable definition loads the variable PETmE, negates the values, fills NODATA cells with zero, and names the resulting variable Negative_PETmE: PETmE@negate@fill0->Negative_PETmE.

The following transformations are supported:

  • negate : negates all values

  • fill0 : replaces all NODATA values with zero

  • [x*x + cos(x)] : evaluate any R expression, where x is a cell value.